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Moderna's mRNA vaccine passes important first hurdle.
Many of you probably already heard that the Moderna vaccine raised a strong immune response in all participants...
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Taking care of a family member, caregiving, does not impact your health
In the U.S. it is estimated that at least 17 million people care for loved ones with significant health...
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A review of vaccine efforts against SARS-CoV-2
The Journal of Virology published a review by Moore and Klasse that summarizes the herculean efforts...
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What does being immune to an infectious disease mean?
There is a ton of talk, justifiably so, about developing immunity to SARS-CoV-2, and whether is it long-lasting?...
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Latest News on COVID-19
Hydroxychloroquine The NIH halted trials of hydroxychloroquine. While the drug did not show significant...
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Mutations in influenza H5 HA can render droplet transmission ability

  Influenza viruses are a great threat to humans and have very well proven their pandemic nature such as the H1N1 pandemic in 2009. They contain the protein haemagglutinin (HA) which determines the host range by identifying specific receptors such as sialic acid linked to galactose by α2,6-linkages in humans. Recent studies at UW-Madison and University of Tokyo by Yoshihiro Kawaoka have identified a reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 virus that can be transferred through droplet transmission in a ferret model...

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A New Reason Why Red Meat, and Some Energy Drinks, May Be Bad for Our Heart

  For years it has been thought that consuming too much red meat may increase a person’s risk for heart disease. New research is indicating that it may not be the red meat that is the problem, but the microbes in our guts. High concentrations of the nutrient L-carnitine are found in red meat. L-carnitine helps transport fatty acids into the mitochondria of cells. The mitochondria are the energy powerhouses of cells. Doctor Stanley Hazen the section head of preventive cardiology and a biochem...

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Why TB Is Hard to Cure

  Mycobacterium is a type of bacteria that causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans. When dividing, cells usually split equally while copying DNA from the mother cell to the daughter cell. Recent research has shown that Mycobacteria behave in a unique manner, with cells dividing (through binary fission) asymmetrically. This means that the Mycobacteria all divide differently; they grow at different rates, sizes and have different vulnerability to antibiotics. Because the Mycobacteria cells...

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On the trail of bacteria - Infrared light allows characterization of pathogens

  Researchers at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna have developed an efficient method in determining if a bacterium can cause diseases or if it lacks the potential.  The scientists have been studying the different strains of Staphylococcus aureus and how they behave within the host. S. aureus that lack capsules are less recognized by the host's immune system compared to those that have capsules and are more susceptible to recognition. These two different strains a...

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Cholera is Altering the Human Genome

  Cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera and is responsible for thousands of deaths every year. A study conducted in Bangladesh has provided researchers evidence that the human body has developed ways to combat this disease. Researchers have discovered that, due to the high prevalence of cholera, the genomes of individuals in Bangladesh have been altered to fight off cholera. These findings also exemplify how human evolution is still occurring in this day...

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Type 1 Diabetes Vaccine

  Scientists at Stanford University have created a useable vaccine for Type 1 Diabetes mellitus.  This disease affects many people around the globe by decreasing the amount of insulin produced by the pancreas, causing high blood sugar in patients.  Type 2 diabetes (aka "adult onset" diabetes) is caused by the body's inability to use insulin properly, whereas type 1 diabetes ("juvenile" diabetes) results from the body's inability to produce insulin.  ...

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Critical Pathway in Cell Cycle May Lead to Cancer Development

  The Stalk Institute for Biological Studies has recently had a team studying the effects of a specific stage of reproduction for the cell, the G1 phase, and how it is different in cancer cells. In this stage, the end part of the chromosome, called telomeres, shorten after each replication. Eventually, in a healthy cell, the telomeres will become too short to replicate further and the cell dies. In cancer cells this process can be altered by the addition of an enzyme that allows for uncontrolled c...

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The Rise of Antibiotic Resistance: Ways of Mitigating

  Antibiotic resistance in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria is becoming an urgent topic in human health. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, antibiotic resistance is developing in more and more bacteria. Resistance has been the cause of over 90,000 deaths nationwide, typically from patients with preexisting autoimmune diseases. Studies have been done to determine why more bacteria are acquiring resistance genes and the origin of these genes.

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Bacterial Loads in Farmer's Market Whole Chicken Compared to Store-Bought Whole Chicken

  Concerns of pesticide use on produce has raised questions to some of the population because of new studies showing linkage to certain diseases.  As a result, some seek organic products at the grocery store.  Another alternative is purchasing fresh produce at the farmer’s market which has become popular in recent years.  The general population believes that locally grown foods are safer.  However, that might not be the case in a small-scale study conducted...

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Can Gut Bugs Control One's Mind?

  Do you know anyone with high anxiety problems? Did you recently score below average on your exam or currently looking for an excuse to not exercise? If that is the case, gut microbes will be your best friend to excuse you from your daily workouts, anxiety problems, and bad exams. The study shows that microbes in our intestines may alter brain development. Many scientists who study behavior and gene activity have seen the change in brain development as they come across gut microbes...

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